Pratylenchus vulnus
Allen and Jensen, 1951
Syn. Anguillulina pratensis Thorne, 1934;
Pratylenchus musicola Condit & Horne, 1938;
Pratylenchus pratensis Allen, 1949; Serr & Day, 1949

Measurements (from C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes)
L = 0.46-0.91 mm; a = 26.6-39.5; b = 5.3-7.7; c = 14.2-27.2; V = 78-84.1; spear = 16-18 um
L = 0.46-0.73 mm; a = 28.3-39.2; b = 5.3-7.4; c = 17.5-29.4; T = 35.8-66; gubernaculum = 4-6 um; spicule = 14-20 um; spear = 15-18 um

Description (from C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes)
 Female: Body, slender nearly straight when killed by gentle heat.  Head almost continuous with body contour, with 3 or 4 annules, heavily sclerotized skeleton extending into body approximately width of one annule.  Surface view of head using the scanning electron microscope shows the surface characteristically divided into submedian and lateral segments.  Six small papillae surround the oral opening and 2 large amphids are present laterally.  Spear with rounded basal knobs sometimes cupped anteriorly.  Median oesophageal bulb oval, relatively narrow.  Excretory pore about opposite oesophago-intestinal junction.  Oesophagus overlaps intestine ventrally in a long lobe.  Spermatheca fuctional, oblong when distended with sperm, postvulval sac about 2 vulval body widths long with rudimentary ovary.  Lateral field with 4 incisures, outer ones smooth or weakly crenate, inner ones closer to each other than to outer ones, occasionally oblique lines in inner field.  Tail tapering, with narrowly rounded to subacute smooth tip, occasionally irregular, sometimes with one or two annulations.
Male: Common, generally similar to female in appearance of head and oesophagus.  Lateral field ends on bursa, which envelops tail.  Spicules curved, cephalated; gubernaculum simple.
Type and host locality: Roots of California black walnut, Juglans hindsii, San Jose, California, USA.

Measurements (from Allen and Jensen, 1951)
L = 0.46-0.91 mm; a = 26.6-39.5; b = 5.3-7.7; c = 14.2-27.7; V = 78-84.1%
L = 0.46-0.73 mm; a = 28.3-39.2; b = 5.3-7.4; c = 17.5-29.4

Description (from Allen and Jensen, 1951)
 Female: Cuticle marked by distinct transverse striae averaging about 1 um apart except in neck and tail where striae may be nearly 2 um apart.  Wing area composed of three elements marked by four incisures, the outer ones noticeably crenate.  Lip region almost continuous with body contour; marked by two or three striae which form three or four annules.  In face view six sectors of the lip region are visible, the lateral lips are distinctly wider than the submedians.  Papillae very obscure.  Amphid apertures located near outer margin of lateral lips.  Spear 16 to 18 um long with well developed conspicuous basal knobs.  Wide muscular bands connect spear base with the heavily sclerotized labial framework.
 Dorsal esophageal gland orifice located about 3 um behind spear base.  Median esophageal bulb slightly ovate, equipped with a refractive valvular apparatus.  Nerve ring surrounding esophagus just behind median bulb.  Esophagus extending about 2 body widths beyond median bulb.  Esophageal glands forming a large lobe overlapping the anterior end of the intestine.  Three esophageal nuclei are usually visible.  Excretory pore located about 2 body widths behind median bulb.
 Anterior branch of female reproductive system composed of a short uterus, cellular oviduct and outstretched ovary made up of a series of developing oocytes arranged in a single file except for a short region of reproduction near anterior end.  Ovary frequently extending to the vicinity of the esophageal glands.  Posterior uterine branch extending one-fourth to tone-half the distance to anal opening.  Posterior branch composed of a short extension of the uterus and a short vestigial ovary.  Vestigial ovary obscure, but readily seen in stained specimens.  Phasmid openings slightly posterior to middle of tail.  The four incisures extend beyond the phasmids almost to terminus of tail.  Striae of cuticle not extending around terminus of tail.
 Male: Lip region continuous with neck contour, marked by two or three striae which form three or four annules.  Spear 15 to 18 um long, labial framework, and esophagus similar to that of female.  Phasmids located slightly posterior to middle of tail, extending into bursa: opening short of the margin of the bursa.  In cross-section tail ventrally flattened posterior to anal opening.  Single testis made up of developing spermatocytes usually arranged in two rows.  Length of testis variable, sometimes extending to vicinity of the esophageal glands.  Spicula arcuate, hafted, about 17 um long.  Gubernaculum slightly arcuate, about 5 um long.
Type host: California black walnut, Juglans hindsii Jepson
Type locality: San Jose, California

Measurements (from Sher & Allen, 1953)
L = 0.46-0.91 mm; a = 25-39; b = 5.3-7.3; c = 15-25; V = 78-82; spear = 15-19 um
L = 0.46-0.74 mm; a = 28-39; b = 5.3-7.4; c = 18-26; T = 36-66; spear = 14-18 um

Description (from Sher & Allen, 1953)
    Female: Lateral fields marked by four incisures.  Lip region almost continuous with body contour, marked by three annules.  Spear 16 um long with broadly rounded basal knobs.  Sclerotized labial framework extends into the body laterally about one body annule.  Spear-guiding apparatus extends posteriorly from basal plate about three body annules.  Hemizonid just in front of excretory pore, about two body annules long.  Ovary outstretched, extends past esophageal gland, consists of a single row of oocytes except for a region of multiplication near anterior end.  Spermatheca oblong.  Cellular oviduct a little longer than spermatheca.  Uterus slightly shorter than spermatheca.  Posterior uterine branch long, more than twice the width of body at vulva, composed of a short extension of the uterus and a short vestigial ovary.  Phasmid slightly posterior to middle of tail.  Four lateral lines extending past phasmid.  Tail tapers.  Terminus rounded, not striated.
    Male: Similar to female.  Single outstretched testis contains spermatocytes usually arranged in two rows, often extends to the region of esophageal glands.  Phasmids slightly posterior to middle of tail, extend into bursa.  Spicula arcuate, hafted, rest upon trough-shaped gubernaculum.
Type host: Roots of walnut.
Type locality: San Jose, Santa Clara County, California.

Description (from Roman, Hirschmann, 1969)
 Females: Lateral field often marked by four incisures, but may exhibit variations.  Lip region continuous with body contour, marked by three to four annules, commonly with three annules on one side and four annules on the other.  Refractive "ornamentation" of terminal end of vestibule lacking.  Stylet knobs rounded with little variation in shape.  Glandular lobe of esophagus overlapping anterior end of intestine ventrally and slightly laterally.  Hemizonid two to three annules long, located immediately, or one annule in front of excretory pore.  Gonad 166.8 to 326.1 um long.  Spermatotheca oblong, usually containing spermatozoa.  Postvulvar uterine branch 30.0 to 48.0 um long.  No oogonia observed in posterior branch.  Tail often pointed, but exhibiting pronounced variation.  Annulations may extend around terminus.
 Males: Similar to females.  Stylet knobs rounded.  Hemizonid located immediately, or one annule in front of excretory pore.  Gonad 184.6 to 320.0 um long.

Measurements (from Arjun Lal & Khan, 1989)
L = 0.51-0.64 mm; a = 28-33; b = 5.2-6.4; c = 19.0-23.7; V = 77-80; spear = 13-14 um
L = 0.53-0.56 mm; a = 32-33; b = 5.1-6.2; c = 19.5-19.7; T = 41-45; spear = 13-14 um; spicules = 12-13 um

Description (from Arjun Lal & Khan, 1989)
    Lip annules three or four; lateral field with four incisures, the central zone narrower than the lateral ones; female with oval spermatheca filled with sperms: female tail terminus narrowly rounded to subacute.  Males common and similar to females in general morphology, lateral field ends on bursa which envelops tail; spicules curved, cephalated, gubernaculum simple.  Presence of a shorter spear is considered as geographical variation.
Habitat and locality: Soil around the roots of walnut (Juglans regia) collected from reserved natural forests, Latoli Road, IVRI, Mukteshwar (Kumaon hills), Uttar Pradesh on 13.5.1984 by the senior author.