Genus Punctodera
Mulvey & Stone, 1976
Illustrated Key to Cysts

Heteroderinae.  Mature female and cyst:  Spherical, pear-shaped or oval, with a short projecting neck, and heavy subcrystalline layer.  Cuticle reticulate, subcuticle with punctations.  D-layer present.  Terminal region not cone-shaped;  cyst light to dark brown.  Vulval slit extremely short (less than 5 um); anus at a short distance from vulval lip. Circumfenestrate, fenestra surrounding vulva 16-40 um (about 20 um in type species) in diameter; anus offset towards ventral margin of fenestra; an anal fenestra of similar shape and size as vulval fenestra present.  Underbridge and perineal papillae-like tubercles absent.  Bullae usually absent.  Eggs retained in body, no egg sac is formed.  Male:  Vermiform, under 1.5 mm long.  Orifice of dorsal oesophageal gland 2.6-4.6 um behind stylet base.  Spicules 31-33 um long, distally pointed.  Tail less than half anal body width long; cloacal lips not forming a tube. Second-stage juvenile:  Body 0.35 - 0.49 mm, stylet 24 -26 um and tail conical, 63 - 78 um long with a 38 - 41 um long hyaline terminal portion in type species.  Lateral field with three or four incisures.  Oesophageal glands fill body width.  Phasmids punctiform, without a lens-like structure.  Feeding induces a syncytium.
(Description- Siddiqi, 2000)

Type species
    Punctodera punctata
        syn.:  Heterodera punctata  Thorne, 1928
              Globodera punctata (Thonre, 1928) Skarbilovich, 1959
Other species
    Punctodera chalcoensis Stone, Sosa Moss & Mulvey, 1976
    Punctodera matadorensis  Mulvey & Stone, 1976