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Pest Description
IDENTITY: Scientific name: Hoplolaimus indicus
Sher, 1963
Common name: A lance nematode

NOTE ON TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY: Females of this lance nematode are about 1 mm long. They have a lip region with the basal annulus marked by 6-12 longitudinal striations, a lateral field marked by one incisure, and a distinct spermatheca. Their intestine overlaps the rectum and the length of their tail is about 4/7 the anal body width. This lance nematode has ectoparasitic and also semi-endoparasitic habits and feeds along feeder roots causing root discoloration and stunting. At 28 C (82 F), it requires 36 days to complete its life cycle. Males are common (Khan and Chawla, 1975).

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: This lance nematode has been reported from the following countries: Bangladesh, China, India and Iran (CAB International, 2001).

HOSTS: The main host is rice (Oryza sativa). Other hosts include banana (Musa sp.), Bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), black gram (Vigna mungo), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), chili (Capsicum frutescens), chir pine (Pinus roxburghii), citrus (Citrus sp.), clusterbena (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), corn (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium sp.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum  sp.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), egg plant (Solanum melongena),  koracan (Eleusine coracana), mango (Mangifera indica), mung bean (Vigna radiata) okra (Abelmoscus esculentum), pea (Pisum sativum), peanut (Arachis hypogea), pepper (Capsicum annnuum), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), potato (Solanum tuberosum), radish (Raphanus sativus), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), Thailand shower (Senna siamea) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). It also has been found associated with almond (Prunus amygdalus), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), eucalyptus (Eucaliptus sp.), mulberry (Morus sp.), olive (Olea europaea), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus domestica), and conifers.

CROP LOSSES:  Plant stunting has been reported in rice and sugarcane fields infested by this nematode. However, the damage has not been quantified (CAB International, 2001).

MEANS OF MOVEMENT AND DISPERSAL: Hoplolaimus indicus is dispersed with infested soil and by poorly sanitized bare rooted plants or contaminated machinery.

RATING: (L) Taking into consideration the nematodes's distribution, and that the nematode damage to agronomic crops has not been well quanitfied, the Working Group gave this nematode a low priority for a complete PRA.

    CAB International, 2001. Hoplolaimus indicusin: Crop protection compendium, global module, 3rd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
    Khan, E., and M. L. Chawla. 1975, CIH description of plant parasitic nematodes Set 5, No. 66. St. Albans, UK: Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology.