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Pest Description
IDENTITY: Scientific name: Xiphinema ifacolum
Luc, 1961
Common name: A dagger nematode

NOTE ON TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY: Females of this dagger nematode are about 3 mm long. They have an odontostylet about 185-197 µm long and an odontophore about 59-79 µm long. Their tail is conoid, narrowed towards the terminus with a subdigitate process. Z-organs present. It has ectoparasitic habits and feeds along feeder roots causing root discoloration and stunting. Males are common. This nematode is not known to transmit viruses.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: Xiphinema ifacolum is a tropical dagger nematode, which has been reported from the following countries: Brazil, Cameroon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka (CAB International, 2001).

HOSTS: The main host is rice (Oryza sativa sp.). Other hosts include: black pepper (Piper nigrum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). It has been reported associated with other plants such as banana (Musa sp.), citrus (Citrus limon), cocoa (Teobroma cacao), coffee (Coffea sp.), eggplant (Solanum melongena), okra (Abelomoschus esculentum), pepper (Capsicum sp.), pineapple (Ananas comosus) and soybean (Glycine max).

CROP LOSSES:  This nematode has been reported associated with declining rice stands.

MEANS OF MOVEMENT AND DISPERSAL: Xiphinema ifacolum is dispersed with infested soil, poorly sanitized bare rooted plants, and contaminated machinery.

RATING: (L) Taking into consideration the damaging effect and distribution of this dagger nematode a low priority rating was given to this nematode for a complete risk assessment.

    CAB International, 2001. Xiphinema ifacolumin: Crop protection compendium, global module, 3rd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.