Nematode Pest Site Home
Pest Lists
Pest Table 1
Pest Description
IDENTITY:  Scientific name: Bursaphelenchus mucronatus
Mamya & Enda, 1979
Common name: Pinewood nematode species complex

NOTES ON TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY: Bursaphelenchus mucronatus like B. xylophilus is a parasite of above ground tissues of pine trees (twigs, branches and trunk). It invades the tracheal system of beetle species of the genus Monochamus and is vectored via oviposition or feeding wounds of the beetle species. These beetles also vector the pine wood nematode B. xylophilus (Jikumaru and Togashi, 2001). Nematodes delivered by the beetles develop and reproduce in plant tissues and especially in weakened, stressed or dying trees. The nematodes invade the vascular system of pine trees resulting in death of the infected pines. The syndrome is similar to that caused by X. xylophilus.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION: B. mucronatus is common in the northern hemisphere including: China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Russia and Sweden (PPQ, New Pest Advisory Group, 2001).

HOSTS: Larch (Larix olgen, L. sibirica), pines (Pinus densisflora, P.feffreyi, P.  koraiensis, P. nigra, P. pinaster, P. sylvestris, P. taeda and, P. thunbergii), and spruce (Picea sp.).

CROP LOSSES:  Bursaphelenchus mucronatus damage in native areas of Europe and the Far East is similar to that of B. xylophilus in the United States. Since B. xylophilus became a devastating pest when it was introduced in the Far East there are chances that the same increase in nematode pathogenicity will occur also for B. mucronatus if it is introduced in the US (Kulinich and Orlinskii, 1998).

MEANS OF MOVEMENT AND DISPERSAL: This nematode may be transported with nematode infested logs or by Monochamus beetles harboring the nematode.

RATING: (L) Due to the long-distance dispersal of both nematode and vector with infested wood, and the possibility that B. mucronatus may become a strong pathogen if it is introduced in a new area such as the United States (PPQ New Pest Advisory Group, 2001).

Comments on Bursaphelenchus mucronatus provided by 
Ke Dong and the nematologists of the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA).

    Jikumaru, S., and K. Togashi. 2001. Transmisssion of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) through feeding wounds by Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Nematology 3:325-333.
    Kulinich, O., and P. Orlinski. 1998. Distribution of conifer beetles (Scolitydae, Curculionidae, Cerambycidae) and wood nematodes (Bursaphenchus) species in the European and Asian Russia. EPPO Bulletin 28:39-52.
    PPQ, New Pest Advisory Group. 2001. NPGA data: Bursaphelenchus mucronatus a pine wood nematode, potential introduction. Electronic publication by USDA, APHIS code: Nem ParBmD01.pdf).