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Pest Description
IDENTITY: Scientific name: Heterodera latipons
Franklin, 1969
Common name: A cereal cyst nematode
Additional Information: 
FDACS Nematology Circular 221
(PDF file format)
NOTES ON TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY: Like other cyst forming nematodes, it has sedentary endoparasitic habits. Cysts are persistent tanned sacs derived by the female body and contain the eggs. Cysts persist in soil for many years. Second-stage juveniles (J2) emerge from the cysts, penetrate host roots and establish a specialized feeding site (syncytium) in the stele. They develop into swollen females, which retain the eggs and produce egg masses. Females rupture root cortex and protrude from root surface. At the end of the reproductive phase, females die and become lemon shaped dark to mid-brown cysts. These cysts are bifenestrate and usually lack bullae, but have a strong underbridge.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION: This cereal cyst nematode is a Mediterranean species that is known to occur in Cyprus, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey (Franklin, 1969; Greco, personal communication, Saxena et al., 1988).

 HOSTS: This nematode infects cereals. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are the most seriously damaged cereals, but the nematode also infects oats (Avena sativa) and rye (Secale cereale).

CROP LOSSES: Yield suppression as great as 50% was reported on barley in Cyprus (Philis, 1988). Severe wheat and barley stunting are common in infested fields in Libya (Franklin, 1969), Syria and Lebanon (Greco, personal communication; Sikora, 1988).

MEANS OF MOVEMENT AND DISPERSAL: The nematode is dispersed with soil debris and plant material contaminated by the cysts.

RATING: (M)  The reported serious damage caused by this pest and the probable pathway for cysts to be introduced with soil, seeds or military equipment from these countries indicates that a complete PRA should be completed for this nematode.

    Franklin, M. T., 1969. Heterodera latipons n.sp., a cereal cyst nematode from the Mediterranean region. Nematologica15:535-542.
    Philis, I. 1988. Occurrence of Heterodera latipons on barley in Cyprus. Nematologia Mediterranea 16:223.
    Saxena, M. C., R. A. Sikora, and J. P. Srivastava. 1988. Nematodes parasitic to cereals and legumes in temperate semi-arid regions. Pp. 69-84 in International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria.
    Sikora, R. A. 1988. Plant parasitic nematodes of wheat and barley in temperate and temperate semi-arid regions-a comparative analysis. Pp. 46-68 in M.C. Saxena, R.A. Sikora, and J.P. Srivastava eds. Nematodes parasitic to cereals and legumes in temperate semi-arid regions. International Center  for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria.