Mesocriconema curvatum
(Raski, 1952) Loof & DeGrisse, 1989
Criconemoides curvatus Raski, 1952
Macroposthonia curvata (Raski, 1952) De Grisse & Loof, 1965
Criconemella curvata (Raski, 1952) Luc & Raski, 1981
Criconemoides tescorum de Guiran, 1963 synonymised by Luc (1970)
Macroposthonia tescorum (de Guiran, 1963) De Grisse & Loof, 1965 
Criconemella tescorum (de Guiran, 1963) Ebsary, 1982
Criconemoides nainitalensis Edward & Misra, 1963
Macroposthonia nainitalensis (Edward & Misra) De Grisse & Loof, 1965
Macroposthonia coomansi De Grisse, 1967
Mesocriconema coomansi (De Grisse, 1967) Loof & De Grisse, 1989
Criconemoides dorsoflexus Boonduang & Ratanaprapa, 1974
Macroposthonia dorsoflexa (Boonduang & Ratanaprapa, 1974) Siddiqi, 1986
Macroposthonia rusium Khan, Chawla & Saha, 1976
Criconemella rusium (Khan, Chawla & Saha, 1976) Luc & Raski, 1981
Mesocriconema rusium (Khan, Chawla & Saha, 1976) Loof & De Grisse, 1989
Mesocriconema ritteri Doucet, 1981
Criconemella ritteri (Doucet, 1981) Chaves, 1984

Photo Galleries:
9 Mile Prairie
Aurora Prairie, SD
Avoca Prairie, Wisconsin
Brookings, South Dakota
Doolittle Prairie, IA
Great Bend, KS
Homestead Nat'l Monument
Kalsow Prairie
Konza Prairie
Konza Prairie Bison carcasses
Montana CAPS
Nebraska CAPS
Reichelt Prairie, IA
Roth Prairie, AR

Sheeder Prairie, Iowa
South Dakota CAPS
Spring Creek Prairie, NE
Williams Prairie, Iowa
Wyoming CAPS

L = 0.303-0.452 mm; a = 8.5-12.9; b = 3.2-4.5; c = 21.9; V = 90.8-96.3
L = 0.364-0.376 mm; a = 20.2-20.9; c = 12.8-13.0; T = 37.2

Larva. Head and tail bluntly rounded as in female.  Sublateral lobes present.  Spear 41-46 u long.  Total annules 80-88, no cuticular markings present.

Female.  Oral opening obscure at surface, shows internally as oval slit near base of sclerotization.  Conspicuous elevated labial disc surrounds oral opening.  Amphid apertures obscure, appear to be narrow, darkened slits on lateral margins of labial disc.  Labial disc expands laterally near base to accommodate amphidial pouches.   Sclerotization hexaradiate with innervations in four submedian sectors.  Sublateral labes conspicuous, placed equadistant about labial disc.  Ventro-sublateral lobes and dorso-sublateral labes connected between each other, but no connections between sublateral lobes dorso-ventrally.  First annule variable, usually divided into four labial plates but may be reduced in number and/or size or divided only in some sectors.  First two annules smaller and narrower than succeeding annules but not set off, presenting a bluntly rounded outline.
     Spear length 47-67 u.  Excretory pore on 21-29th annule from anterior end.  Vulva on 6-10th annule from end of body, generally on 7-8th annule.  Anterior flap of vulva variable, usually presents a slightly bilobed appearance but may be simple in outline.  Anastomosis with preceeding or succeeding annules often complicates vulva pattern.  Ovary extends 30.9-70.7% of body length.  Anus on 5-6th annule from end of body.  Terminus simple, rounded or lobed.  Total annules 78-101.

Male.  Lip region low rounded, no striae present on lips.  Sublateral lobes small, placed equadistant about labial disc.  Innervations of amphids present but amphid apertures obscure.  Hexaradiaate sclerotization delicate, extending approximately four annules posterior to lip region.
     Spear absent, esophagus and intestine indistinct.  Lateral field marked by four incisures.  Excretory pore 88-91u from anterior end of body.  Hemizonid about 1.5 annules wide, located two annules anterior to excretory pore.
     Spicules 27u long, definitely curved.  Gubernaculum simple, rod-like, 5 u long.  Spicule sheath protrudes conspicuously but lacks the posterior process present in C. xenoplax.  Body constricts posterior to spicules, coarsely annulated. Tail pointed with rounded terminus.  Bursa small, begins slightly anterior to cloacal opening and extends almost to terminus.  Lateral lines extend varying distance on bursa.
Males rare, known only from type locality.

Type Habitat: Soil taken about the roots of snapdragon (Antirrhinum sp.)
Type Locality: Near Colma, San Mateo County, California

Diagnosis:  Criconemoides curvatum is most closely related to C. xenoplax from which it differs in the smaller size of males and females and in the shorter spear of females.  In addition, the male tail of cuvatum is more pointed, the spicules more strongly curved and the lip region less elevated.  The larvae have no cuticular markings on the annules which differs from the longitudinal cuticular markings on the larvae of C. xenoplax.
This species keys to C. rusticum according to Taylor (1936) from which it differs in the posession of sublateral lobes on the lip region and in the rounded shape of the head and tail.
-- Raski, 1952

This species included in the Criconematid Project

DNA Sequences Obtained
Specimen: Collected:
KonzaII BB-102 Konza Prairie, First survey
9Mile 3-5 LP2-23 9 Mile Prairie
LCC N Lincoln Country Club
9MileLP2-19 9 Mile Prairie
NE61-02  (16124) Polk county, Nebraska
NE61-01  (16123) Polk county, Nebraska
Sheeder L1-05  (15556) Sheeder Prairie, Iowa
9MileSW2-10  (13458) 9 Mile Prairie