Genus Cactodera
Krallí & Krallí, 1978
Photo Gallery-Niobrara River, NE
Photo Gallery- Wyoming
Photo Gallery- Sheeder Prairie, Iowa
Cyst Comparisons


Diagnosis
    Heteroderinae.  Mature female and cyst:  Spherical, with small terminal protuberance (vulval cone) in mature female; females yellowish, cysts dark brown.  Cuticular surface pattern characteristic, with roughly parallel ridges interrupted by short vertical or oblique ridges; D-layer present (absent in C. betulae).  Vulval slit short (13-20 um).  Vulval fenestra circumfenestrate, 20-48 um in diameter; bullae and underbridge absent; vulval denticles usually present.  No anal fenestration.  Eggs with punctate surface (type species) or without visible markings; all eggs (about 300-400) retained in the cyst; no egg mass formed.  Male:  Length up to 1.7 mm;  spicules 32-36 um long, distally pointed with bifid tip; gubernaculum 10-12 um long in the the type species. Tail less than one-half body width long, rounded; cloacal lips not forming a tube.  Second-stage juvenile:   Body 0.42-0.63 mm, stylet 22-28 um and tail 34-38 um long in type species.  Lateral field with four incisures.  Labial disc present but not conspicuous; generally six lip sectors present.  Oesophageal glands filling body cavity. Tail conical, terminal half hyaline.  Phasmid punctiform, without a lens-like structure in muscle layer.  Feeding induces a syncytium, generally with wall ingrowths.

Type species
    Cactodera cacti  (Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941) Krall & Krall, 1978
        syn.  Heterodera cacti  Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941
(Description- Siddiqi, 2000)

DNA Sequences Obtained
Specimen: Collected:
TXB387 Texas
TXB79 Texas
Niobrara G2T2 Niobrara River, NE

Species List:
C. acnidae  (Schuster & Brezina, 1979) Wouts, 1985
    syn.  Heterodera acnidae  Schuster & Brezina, 1979
C. amaranthi  (Stoyanov, 1972) Krall & Krall, 1978
    syn.  Heterodera amaranthi  Stoyanov, 1972
C. aquatica  (Kirjanova, 1971) Krall & Krall, 1978
    syn.  Heterodera aquatica  Kirjanova, 1971
C. betulae (Hirschmann & Riggs, 1969)
    syn.  Heterodera betulae Hirschmann & Riggs, 1969
C. cacti  (Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941) Krall & Krall, 1978
    syn.  Heterodera cacti  Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941
C. eremica  Baldwin & Bell, 1985
C. estonica  (Kirjanova & Krall, 1963) Krall & Krall, 1978
    syn.  Heterodera estonica  Kirjanova & Krall, 1963
C. milleri  Graney & Bird, 1990
C. salina  Baldwin, Mundo-Ocampo & McClure, 1997
C. thornei  (Golden & Raski, 1977) Krall & Krall, 1978
    syn.  Heterodera thornei Golden & Raski, 1977
C. weissi  (Steiner, 1949) Krall & Krall, 1978
    syn.  Heterodera weissi  Steiner, 1949