Definition: Bunonematinae. Body spindle-shaped, usually
between 250 and 400u long, tapering posteriorly to a sharply pointed
tail. Head asymmetrical; the right lateral lip enlarged and projecting
laterally; right submedians enlarged, lamallate and each bearing a distal
spine and modified lip papillae. Lips of left side small and unmodified,
rather obscured by those of the right. 5 long papillae adorn the
head, corresponding to the ends of the 5 cuticular ridges that end at the
head, the 3 on the left side and the 2 median membranes. There are
other short spines in some species. Head relatively large.
Right side with pronounced ornamentation which is basically a fine or coarse
hexagonal network pattern with additional paired warts present or absent.
A narrow dorsal and ventral membrane, supported by cuticular rods, runs
along the length of the body in a median position, ending anteriorly in
a collar on the right side. Left side of the body smooth except for
5 longitudinal ridges. The stoma appears to have a glottid aparatus
(see Korner, 1954) but has not been adequately described. The cheilo-,
pro- and mesostom is fused into a long cylinder about 11 times longer than
wide, the segments of the metastom bulge inwards and have minute denticles,
and the telostom appears as a rhabdial ring. An oesophageal collar
reaches up about 10% of the protostom. Oesophagus has rounded median
bulb and a rounded terminal bulb with unserrated valve plates. Nerve
ring crosses the isthmus and the exretory pore is slightly behind the ring.
Rectum long, in the female, the anus opens under a flap of cuticle.
Type species: Bunonema richtersi Jagerskiold, 1905
Species found: at: