of the Week
sp. (Sting Nematode)
This week's featured nematode was recovered from
corn fields located in Greeley County, Nebraska. It is found in extremely
sandy soils and may be an undescribed species.
Belonolaimus Steiner, 1949
Belonolaiminae. SEM face view shows a well marked, rounded labial disc,
and first lip
annulus divided into six sectors, lateral sectors almost completely regressed,
as small interruptions of the first one or two labial annuli. Labial region
marked by deep
longitudinal grooves. Stylet very long, 60-150 um long, its cone 70-80%
of total stylet
length. Corpus as in Morulaimus. Oesophageal glands overlapping beginning
intestine. Female tail cylindroid with a broadly rounded terminus. Lateral
field with four
lines or less.
Damage to Corn. Belonolaimus species
are extremely damaging to corn. Numbers as low as 1- 10 per 100 CC of soil
can cause damage to corn seedlings.
Biology. There are at least two Belonolaimus
species that feed on corn roots in North America. All are large
nematodes (between 1.0 – 3.0 mm) possessing a characteristic
Ecology. Sting nematodes are restricted to very sandy
soils. In the north central states they become active as soon as
soils become warm. As the season progresses, they appear to migrate deeper
into the soil profile.
Symptoms. Sting nematodes severely trim the lateral
roots of corn seedlings. Stunted plants occur in patches throughout
Damage to other crops. Sting nematodes have a wide
host range including soybeans, wheat, peanuts, beans, and other crop plants.
Control. Rotation with alfalfa has been successful.
Chemical nematicides have been successful in reducing sting numbers.